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My Research

My Ph.D. dissertation aimed to characterize extracellular vesicles, or EVs, which are tiny particles shed from brain tumors that can be found in the blood. Tumor EVs are messengers that send signals throughout the whole body to promote tumor growth and shut down anti-tumor immune responses. By analyzing the vesicles extracted from blood, it may be possible to identify if there is a tumor, what type of tumor it is, if it’s progressing, if the treatment is working, and how is the tumor suppressing the immune system. The information we get from analyzing the EVs can be used to provide early treatment to patients that need it and prevent unnecessary treatment to those who don’t.

Advancements and technical considerations for extracellular vesicle isolation and biomarker identification in glioblastoma

Luz M. Cumba Garcia, Samantha M. Bouchal, Megan M. Bauman, Ian F. Parney
Neurosurgery. 2023 Feb
PMID:36749103       DOI:10.1227/neu.0000000000002393

Superinduction of immunosuppressive glioblastoma extracellular vesicles by IFN-γ through PD-L1 and IDO1

Mi-Yeon Jung, Abudumijiti Aibaidula, Desmond A. Brown, Benjamin T. Himes, Luz M. Cumba Garcia, Ian F Parney
Neurooncol Adv. 2022 Jan-Dec; Volume 4, Issue 1
PMID:35990703      PMCID: PMC9389426       DOI:10.1093/noajnl/vdac017

Plasma extracellular vesicles as a source of biomarkers in traumatic brain injury

Ross C Puffer, Luz M. Cumba Garcia, Benjamin T Himes, Mi-Yeon Jung, Frederic B Meyer, David O Okonkwo, Ian F Parney
J Neurosurg. 2020 Jul; Volume 134, Issue 6, Pages 1921-1928
PMID:32707544      DOI:10.3171/2020.4.JNS20305

The role of extracellular vesicles and PD-L1 in glioblastoma-mediated immunosuppressive monocyte induction

Benjamin T. Himes , Timothy E. Peterson, Tristan de Mooij, Luz M. Cumba Garcia, Mi-Yeon Jung, Sarah Uhm, David Yan, Jasmine Tyson, Helen J L Li, Daniel Parney, Mina Abukhadra, Michael P. Gustafson, Allan B. Dietz, Aaron J. Johnson, Haidong Dong, Rachel L. Maus, Svetomir Markovic, Fabrice Lucien, Ian F Parney
Neuro-Oncology. 2020 Feb; Volume 22, Issue 7, Pages 967–978
PMID:32080744      PMCID: PMC7339906       DOI:10.1093/neuonc/noaa029

Translating innovation in biomedical research: Design and delivery of a competency-based regulatory science course

Alexandra J. Greenberg-Worisek, Katherine E. Cornelius, Luz Cumba Garcia, Felicity T. Enders, Nilay D. Shah, and Anthony J. Windebank
J Clin Transl Sci. 2019 Dec; Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 8-15
PMID:32257405       PMCID: PMC7103473      DOI:10.1017/cts.2019.432

Isolation and analysis of plasma-derived exosomes in patients with glioma

Luz M. Cumba Garcia, Timothy E. Peterson, Mario A. Cepeda, Aaron J. Johnson, and Ian F. Parney
Frontiers in Oncology. 2019 Jul; Volume 9:651
PMID:31380286       PMCID: PMC6646733      DOI:10.3389/fonc.2019.00651

CD38 promotes pristane-induced chronic inflammation and increases susceptibility to experimental lupus by an apoptosis-driven TRPM2-dependent mechanism

Sonia García-Rodríguez, Antonio Rosal-Vela, Davide Botta, Luz M. Cumba Garcia, Esther Zumaquero, Verónica Prados-Maniviesa, Daniela Cerezo-Wallis, Nicola Lo Buono, José-Ángel Robles-Guirado, Salvador Guerrero, Elena González-Paredes, Eduardo Andrés-León, Ángel Corbí, Matthias Mack, Friedrich Koch-Nolte, Ramón Merino, Mercedes Zubiaur, Frances E. Lund, and Jaime Sancho
Scientific Reports, Volume 8, Article number: 3357 (2018)
PMID:29463868       PMCID: PMC5820326      DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-21337-6

Brain atrophy in picornavirus-infected FVB mice is dependent on the H-2Db class I molecule

April M. Huseby Kelcher, Pascal A. Atanga, Jeffrey D. Gamez, Luz M. Cumba Garcia, Stephanie J. Teclaw, Kevin D. Pavelko, Slobodan I. Macura, Aaron J. Johnson
FASEB J. 2017 Jun; Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 2267-2275
PMID:29463868       PMCID: PMC5434653      DOI:10.1096/fj.201601055R

Superior isolation of antigen-specific brain infiltrating T cells using manual homogenization technique

Luz M. Cumba Garcia, April M. Huseby Kelcher, Courtney S. Malo, Aaron J. Johnson
J Immunol Methods. 2016 Dec; Volume 439, Pages 23-28
PMID:27623324       PMCID: PMC5310589      DOI:10.1016/j.jim.2016.09.002

Prevalence of drug resistance and associated mutations in a population of HIV-1(+) Puerto Ricans: 2006-2010

Sepúlveda-Torres L Del C, De La Rosa A, Cumba L, Boukli N, Ríos-Olivares E, Cubano LA
AIDS Res Treat. 2012; 2012:934041
PMID:22593823       PMCID: PMC3347695      DOI:10.1155/2012/934041

Prevalence of drug resistance and associated mutations in a population of HIV-1+ Puerto Ricans in 2005

Cubano LA, Cumba L, del Sepúlveda-Torres LC, Boukli N, Ríos-Olivares E
Bol Asoc Med P R. 2010 Jul-Sep; 102(3):13-7
PMID:23875516       PMCID: PMC4556367

Research Experience


As a graduate student, I optimized a simple two-step technique for isolating and characterizing plasma exosomes from glioblastoma patients and shown distinct differences from plasma exosomes from healthy donors. The central hypothesis to this project is that plasma exosomes frequency and cargo correlate with tumor burden in glioblastoma patients undergoing immunotherapy treatments.


As a Post- Baccalaureate student, I worked on optimizing the isolation of antigen-specific CD8 T cells from the brain during Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection. For this work, I was comparing the efficacy of mechanical homogenization verses collagenase digest of brain tissue to liberate immune cells. Both methods are used in the neuroimmunology field. I determined through my work that antigen-specific T cells and B cells are more optimally isolated using the mechanical based method.


As a Master student, I studied the role of CD38 in a pristane-induced murine model of lupus. We found that CD38- deficient (Cd38−/−) mice developed less severe lupus compared to wild-type (WT) mice, and concluded that CD38 enhances the development of pristane-induced lupus by regulating the cell death of Ly6Chi monocytes and Ly6Clo monocytes/macrophages in a TRPM2-dependent and ART2-independent manner that worsens the early inflammatory response in the peritoneum. Our results highlight the importance of the immunoregulatory role of CD38 in inflammation and in the development of systemic autoimmunity leading to lupus, which should be considered when designing CD38-specific therapies for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.


As an undergraduate student, I worked on determining the percentage of resistance against antiretroviral drugs in a population of HIV+ individuals. Our main objective was to maintain a record of the evolution of the HIV epidemic in Puerto Rico by monitoring the levels of resistance to antiretrovirals and the mutations expressed in the Puerto Rican population. Significant differences between men and women were recorded in the levels of HIV-1 expressed mutations and resistance. My role on this project was analyzing all the data and doing the statistical analysis.


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